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James Webb Space Telescope begins its one-million mile voyage

The world's most powerful space telescope finally blasted off into orbit on Saturday, headed to an outpost 1.5 million km from Earth, after several delays

Arianespace's Ariane 5 rocket with NASA's James Webb Space Telescope onboard, lifts off on Saturday at Europe's Spaceport, the Guiana Space Center in Kourou, French Guiana. (AP)

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The world's most powerful space telescope on Saturday blasted off into orbit, headed to an outpost 1.5 million kilometres (930,000 miles) from Earth, after several delays caused by technical hitches.

The James Webb Space Telescope, some three decades and billions of dollars in the making, left Earth enclosed in its Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana. It is expected to take a month to reach its remote destination, AFP report explains.

Also read: Meet the photographer documenting the James Webb Space Telescope

It is expected to beam back new clues that will help scientists understand more about the origins of the Universe and Earth-like planets beyond our solar system.

Named after former NASA director James E. Webb, the Webb telescope follows in the footsteps of the legendary Hubble -- but intends to show humans what the Universe looked like even closer to its birth nearly 14 billion years ago.

Speaking on social media, Webb project co-founder John Mather described the telescope's unprecedented sensitivity. "#JWST can see the heat signature of a bumblebee at the distance of the Moon," he said.

All that power is needed to detect the weak glow emitted billions of years ago by the very first galaxies to exist and the first stars being formed.

In this still picture from a NASA TV broadcast, the James Webb Space Telescope separates from Arianespace's Ariane 5 rocket after launching from Europe's Spaceport, the Guiana Space Center in Kourou, French Guiana, on December 25, 2021.
In this still picture from a NASA TV broadcast, the James Webb Space Telescope separates from Arianespace's Ariane 5 rocket after launching from Europe's Spaceport, the Guiana Space Center in Kourou, French Guiana, on December 25, 2021. (AFP)

'Exceptional measures'

The telescope is unequalled in size and complexity. Its mirror measures 6.5 metres (21 feet) in diameter -- three times the size of the Hubble's mirror -- and is made of 18 hexagonal sections. It is so large that it had to be folded to fit into the rocket.

That manoeuvre was laser-guided with NASA imposing strict isolation measures to limit any contact with the telescope's mirrors from particles or even human breath, the AFP report adds.

Once the rockets have carried Webb 120 kilometres, the protective nose of the craft, called a "fairing", is shed to lighten the load. To protect the delicate instrument from changes in pressure at that stage, rocket-builder Arianespace installed a custom decompression system.

"Exceptional measures for an exceptional client," said a European Space Agency official in Kourou on Thursday.

Crew on the ground will know whether the first stage of the flight was successful about 27 minutes after launch.

Once it reaches its station, the challenge will be to fully deploy the mirror and a tennis-court-sized sun shield. That intimidatingly complex process will take two weeks and must be flawless if Webb is to function correctly.

Its orbit will be much farther than Hubble, which has been 600 kilometres above the Earth since 1990. The location of Webb's orbit is called the Lagrange 2 point and was chosen in part because it will keep the Earth, the Sun and the Moon all on the same side of its sun shield. Webb is expected to officially enter service in June.

As a recent Mint Lounge story explained, once it is deployed, it will be almost impossible to make any physical repairs on the James Webb Space Telescope; in contrast, the Hubble had its fifth and final servicing mission in 2009. That’s because the Hubble Space Telescope orbits Earth at an altitude of 570km above it. The Webb will be roughly 1.5 million kilometres away.

The Webb’s infrared vision will be able to look back over 13.5 billion years to see the first stars and galaxies of our early universe. One of its other key scientific goals is to look at other planetary systems, understand more about exoplanets, and perhaps even find signs of life in the universe.

(With inputs from AFP)

Also read: How does the veteran Hubble compare with the Webb telescope?

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