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Why your child should eat more fruit and vegetables

A new study claims that a good diet can improve children's mental health 

Fruit keeps you healthy and happy
Fruit keeps you healthy and happy (Patrick Fore)

Parents, take note! A new study found that children who eat a better diet packed with fruit and vegetables have better mental wellbeing. The study was led by the University of East Anglia (UEA) Health and Social Care Partners collaborating with Norfolk County Council. The findings of the study were published in the journal BMJ Nutrition Prevention and Health.

This study is the first to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable intakes, breakfast and lunch choices, and mental wellbeing in UK school children. It shows how eating more fruit and vegetables is linked with better wellbeing among secondary school pupils. And children who consumed five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day had the highest mental wellbeing scores.

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The research team said that public health strategies and school policies should be developed to ensure that good quality nutrition is available to all children before and during school to optimise mental wellbeing and empower children to fulfil their full potential. Lead researcher Professor Ailsa Welch from UEA's Norwich Medical School said, "We know that poor mental wellbeing is a major issue for young people and is likely to have long-term negative consequences." 

According to her, the pressures of social media and modern school culture have been touted as potential reasons for a rising prevalence of low mental wellbeing in children and young people. "And there is a growing recognition of the importance of mental health and wellbeing in early life - not least because adolescent mental health problems often persist into adulthood, leading to poorer life outcomes and achievement," Welch added.

She also pointed out that while the links between nutrition and physical health are well understood, not much is know about whether nutrition plays a part in children's emotional wellbeing. "So, we set out to investigate the association between dietary choices and mental wellbeing among schoolchildren," Welch further said.

The research team studied data from almost 9,000 children in 50 schools across Norfolk (7,570 secondary and 1,253 primary school children) taken from the Norfolk children and Young People's Health and wellbeing Survey. Children involved in the study self-reported their dietary choices and took part in age-appropriate tests of mental wellbeing tests that covered cheerfulness, relaxation, and good interpersonal relationships.

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Welch said, "In terms of nutrition, we found that only around a quarter of secondary-school children and 28 per cent of primary-school children reported eating the recommended five-a-day fruits and vegetables. And just under one in ten children were not eating any fruits or vegetables." She also noted that one in five secondary school children and one in 10 primary children didn't eat breakfast. "And more than one in 10 secondary school children didn't eat lunch," Welch added. 

The team looked at the association between nutritional factors and mental wellbeing. It took into account other factors that might impact, such as adverse childhood experiences and home situations.

Dr Richard Hayhoe, also from UEA's Norwich Medical School, said, "We found that eating well was associated with better mental wellbeing in children. And that among secondary school children, in particular, there was a strong link between eating a nutritious diet packed with fruit and vegetables, and having better mental wellbeing."

"We also found that the types of breakfast and lunch eaten by both primary and secondary school pupils were also significantly associated with wellbeing," Dr Hayhoe added.

"Children who ate a traditional breakfast experienced better wellbeing than those who only had a snack or drink. But secondary school children who drank energy drinks for breakfast had a particularly low mental wellbeing score, even lower than for those children consuming no breakfast at all," Dr Hayhoe explained. 

He also noted that according to data, in a class of 30 secondary school pupils, around 21 will have consumed a conventional-type breakfast, and at least four will have had nothing to eat or drink before starting classes in the morning. "Similarly, at least three pupils will go into afternoon classes without eating any lunch. This is of concern and likely to affect not only academic performance at school but also physical growth and development," he said, adding that nutrition had as much or more of an impact on wellbeing as factors such as witnessing regular arguing or violence at home. 

Welch said, "As a potentially modifiable factor at an individual and societal level, nutrition represents an important public health target for strategies to address childhood mental wellbeing," she said. She added that public health strategies and school policies should be developed to ensure that good quality nutrition is available to all children before and during school to optimise mental wellbeing and empower children to fulfil their full potential. 

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